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Prayer times and calendar explained

We’re often asked where these come from, and why there are sometimes differences between mosques, so here we try to explain.

Suleymaniye Mosque and its branches follows the Fazilet Islamic Calendar, which provides times for 204 countries. Fazilet Calendar times are provided by hard copy books, by their website, app store and play store application which has 18 languages option to choose from.

 

About Fazilet Publications

Fazilet Publications and Trade Inc. has been in the sector of publication since 1969 and aims to give service in Turkey and all across the world.

The supreme goals of Fazilet are to make publications for the Muslims to teach them the decent faith of Ahl as-Sunnah, the practice and devotion, and try to help them read good books to be able to keep them away from those threatening their eternal lives.

The Prophet (s.a.w.) said “For sure the (religious) knowledge is your faith, be careful about from whom you take it.” (Sahih al-Muslim). Then it is certain that books as the nurture of souls are surely to be selected.

It is a great risqué to get the books of those publishers or authors that take no heed of the sensitivities of Ahl as-Sunnah, as they are supposed to contain knowledge challenging and destroying the life to come. Muslims must be very much careful and learn their religion, history and culture from the works by the scholars of Ahl as-Sunnah.

The calendars and books issued by Fazilet are scrutinously prepared by a select group in accordance with a set of religious necessities and rules.

One of the significant publications of Fazilet, the calendar is presented every year anew with the most important works being analysed and the most crucial pieces of information chosen out. And to make those information available and beneficial in any time needed the calendar is issued on our internet page and through mobile devices.

Apart from the wall and smaller hardcover editions Fazilet Calendar is now published in a bigger hardcover form.

As well as in Turkish Fazilet Calendar is now issued in English, German, Dutch, Albanian, Azerbaijani, Indonesian, Kazakh and Kyrgyz.

As a worldwide company, our calendar does a great job for the Muslims all around the world giving the prayer times in 204 countries and 4000 cities across the globe.

COUNTRİES WİTH PRAYER TİMES PROVİDED BY THE FAZİLET CALENDAR

About Fazilet Publications

Fazilet Publications and Trade Inc. has been in the sector of publication since 1969 and aims to give service in Turkey and all across the world.

The supreme goals of Fazilet are to make publications that involve the teachings of the decent faith of Ahl as-Sunnah, the practice and devotion, and try to help them read good books by enabling them to abstain away from any detrimental publications that threaten their eternal lives.

The Prophet (Sallalahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) said “For sure the (religious) knowledge is your faith, be careful about from whom you take it.” (Sahih al-Muslim). Then it is certain that books, which are the nurture of souls, need to be selected carefully.

It is not advisable to obtain the books of those publishers or authors that take no heed of the sensitivities of Ahle Sunnah. They are likely to contain knowledge, which may ruin one’s eternal life. Muslims must be very much careful and learn their religion, history and culture from the works by the scholars of Ahl as-Sunnah.

The calendars and the books published by Fazilet are prepared by an elite team of scholars. These works provide our readers essential and necessary basic rules, and teachings of Islam. All of them are carefully selected and conform to the tenets of Ahle Sunnah.

One of the significant publications of Fazilet, the calendar is presented every year anew with the most important works being analysed and the most crucial pieces of information chosen out. And to make those information available and beneficial in any time needed the calendar is issued on our internet page and through mobile devices.

Apart from the wall and smaller hardcover editions Fazilet Calendar is now published in a bigger hardcover form.

In addition to the Turkish version, Fazilet Calendar is now published in English, German, Dutch, Albanian, Azerbaijani, Kazakh, Kyrgyz and Indonesian.

As a worldwide company, our calendar does a great job for the Muslims all around the world giving the Salah times in 204 countries and 4000 cities across the globe.
 

WHAT IS ADHANI (GHURUBI) TIME?

It is a term used for the time period that starts with the sunset, in other words Maghrib Adhan. Ghurub (sunset) is considered to be 12.00. Everyday at sunset it is 12.00 according to the Adhani Time. It is called Adhani Time since Maghrib Adhan is always recited being set at this hour, 12.00. “Wasati time”, which is used in Turkey today, was adopted in 1925. Turkish people started calling “Wasati time” as Earopean time (Alafranka) and “Adhani time” as Turkish Time (alaturka).

In the time of the Ottoman State, there used to be muwaqqits (1) in the muwaqqit khanas (2) of the major mosques who were in charge of calculating Salah times. Maghrib Adhan would be called according to the calculations of these muwaqqits and the Muslims would set their times as 12.00 just at that hour. Imams would study the calculations of salah times in their Astronomy lessons and work out the local times where ever they were in the absence of the Muwaqqit officials. Adhans would be called according to their calculations and the time be set as 12.00 at Maghrib Adhans. Therefore, time settings would be announced according to the Adhans. Adhani time was also called local time.

When calculating Maghrib time, the muwaqqits  would not use the sunset which takes place when the centre of the sun descends in the horizon, which is a method used in astronomy. They would rather use Shar’i Ghurub for each locations. Shar’i Ghurub is the sunset that is observed in the highest altitude of a location. For example, when the sun is observed to be set at the sea level in Istanbul, it would not be so on Camlica Hill, which is 250 metres above the sea level. In this case, one should consider for Istanbul the sunset time of the hill and not the sea level. Shar’i Ghurub takes place after the physical one. Maghrib time is calculated by adding the difference of the time interval that is observed on the hill at sunset compared to what is observed on the sea level (at this example). This difference is called tamkin (precaution).

There are still few people who use adhani time in Turkey. It is one of the historical traditions of the country. As a tribute to the predecessors, it is still kept for use in the calendar though restricted to Istanbul.

 

    1.    A person who is in charge of calculating Salah times.
   2.    A place where calculations of time is made


Fazilet Calendar

Ijtıma’ And Calculating Islamic Lunar Months

What Is Ijtıma’ (Conjunction), And How Do We Calculate The Beginnings Of The Islamic Lunar Months?

It is known that the moon orbits the Earth once a month. At a certain point during its Orbit, the moon is lined directly in between the sun and the earth. This is known as the line of conjunction.

This takes place every 29 or 30 days. According to astronomers, this is the beginning of the lunar month and at this point, the side of the moon that faces the earth receives no light from the sun, and therefore the moon is not visible from the earth, since the moon is inline directly between the sun and the earth. The Islamic lunar month begins as soon as the moon becomes visible to the naked eye. The Islamic term for this is Ru’yet.

For Ru’yet to exist, two conditions have to be met: 1. The moon must depart east at least 8° from the line of conjunction. This departure varies between 12 and 16 hours in time.

2. The new crescent moon must be at least 5° above the horizon after the sun sets.

When the moon departs from the east at least 8° from the line of conjunction and moves at least 5° above the horizon after sunset, only then will it be positioned to be visible to the naked eye. Only then it will be in a position to have received enough light from the sun.

This is described as the beginning of the Islamic lunar month. For this reason, the Islamic lunar month begins when the crescent moon is visible to the naked eye as apposed to the line of conjunction as described by the astronomers.

We must bear in mind that when the sun sets, the Islamic calendar begins. Therefore, the first day of the Islamic lunar month would be the following day from the sighting of the crescent moon.

It is a shame that lack of knowledge has given us inconsistency throughout the Muslim world, when deciding on the beginning of the Islamic lunar month, forcing us to greet the only two Eids on different days.

Many Muslims around the world today follow the rules of the astronomers. They take the line of conjunction as the beginning of the lunar month.

Therefore, according to their understanding, if the conjunction occurs before midnight, the following day is regarded as the beginning of the lunar month.

If conjunction occurs after midnight, then the day after is regarded as the beginning of the lunar month. This, however, is wrong. We can not accept the line of conjunction as the beginning of the lunar month, because from this point there is a time period of 12 to 16 hours before the crescent moon can be visible to the naked eye, and hence only at this point the sighting of the moon takes place.

In Surah Younus, Ayah 5, Allah (swt), the creator of all universe mentions the importance of knowing and being able to keep a track of time, “It is He who made the sun to be a shining glory and the moon to be a light (of beauty), and measured out stages for her; that you might know the number of years and the count (of time). Allah did not create it but with truth; He makes the signs manifest for people who people for have knowledge”.

In a Hadith, our Prophet Muhammad (saw) says: “When you see the crescent of Ramadan, start fasting, and when you see the crescent of Shawwal, start Eid.” (Ibn-i Maajah, Siyam, 7).

In this Hadith, our Prophet (saw) clearly explains that the beginning of the lunar month is established with the visibility of the crescent moon, hence, Ru’yet. This should be explained to those who still follow the lunar month of astronomers.

 

 

Fazilet Calendar

Important Information Relating To The Prayer Times And Imsaq

ABOUT SALAH AND IMSAQ TIMES

Dear readers, salah time tables in this calendar are prepared according to the views of the scholars of Ahle Sunnah and the Muslim astronomers. When the calculations are done, some astronomical, climatological and geological factors are taken into consideration such as latitude, longitude, time zone, altitude and area of the land.

In order to calculate salah times of a place accurately, it is necassary to apply the spherical triangle formula and some other astronomical formula correctly on the principals of Islamic Jurisprudence (Fiqh). Calculations of Salah times are not merely based on the geometric calculations but rather on the observable results that conform with the Fiqh principals. For instance, as for the sunrise and sunset, what is considered as criterion is not the geometric sunrise and sunset but the one that is observed by the naked eye. The data which are merely based on geometric calculations can not truly meet the desired results since there are variuos factors that might affect its accuracy. For this reason, Islamic scholars had to take some necessary precautions in order to preserve the genuine accuracy of Salah times. These precautions include certain adjustments of the geometric data, still in alignment with the scientific theories, laws and methods widely accepted by the experts of the astronomy.

Thus, the adjustments made in this regard is called “Tamkin” (precaution). Tamkin is not something done to be more cautious about times but rather a necassity governed by Fiqh rules. Only after this process do the results conform with the Fiqh rules. Therefore, it is not advisable to use times without Tamkin.

Salah times, adjusted by Tamkin and other scholarly methods that eliminate possible deviations have been adopted by the Muslim world for centuries. It had been the case for all calendars until 1984 in Turkey. Fazilet calendar has been using this method for all the years.

While calculating the times of Isha Salah and Imsaq (dawn), the sun descending -17 degrees below the horizon is taken into account for the time of Isha Salah and -19 degrees ascending towards the horizon for the time of Imsak (dawn). Additionally, the position of the area on the surface of the earth and the differences in altitude have been considered. As a result, certain Tamkin times are added or deducted from Salah times where deemed necessary.

Having applied this method of Tamkin on Salah times, ten minutes are added on Zuhr, Asr and Isha Salah and seven on Maghrib Salah while ten minutes were deducted from Imsaq (dawn) and five from sunrise.

We strongly urge our readers to pay full heed in following the Salah times given on this calendar and we recommend them not to delay their Salah until its last moments. When you begin to fast, we also recommend you to use the stipulated Imsaq (dawn) times.

It is mentioned in a book of Buyuk Haydar Efendi pertaining Usul Al Fiqh (1) as follows: “Salah performed before the arrival of its due time is not valid. If it happens so Musalli (2) performs Salah before its time has arrived, it is not accepted as having been performed.”

    1.    It is the study and critical analysis of the origins, sources, and principles upon which Islamic jurisprudence is based
   2.    One who performs Salah.

 

Similarly, it is stated in “Anwar-al Ashiqeen”, a work of Hazrat Ahmed Bîjan (Quddisa Sirruhu), in the following way: “Salah performed before the arrival of its due time causes one’s heart lose its Nur (light) and darkness settle in instead.”

Performing any Salah before its time disorders one’s soul as it is against the command of Allah (Ta`ala) and such a Salah remains to be unperformed.

Allah Ta’ala says in Quran, Surah Al Nisa-103:* “Verily, Salah is enjoined on the believers at fixed hours” *
Jabir Bin Abdullah (Radiyallahu Anhu), Ibn Abbas   (Radiyallahu Anhu) and Abu Hurayra  (Radiyallahu Anhu) narrated a Hadith Sharif in which Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) said:

*"Jibril led me in Salah twice near Bayt Allah (House of Allah). The first time, we offered the Salah of Zuhr when the shadow was like the thong of a shoe. Then, we offered Asr when the shadow of everything was equal to it, and maghrib after sunset when the fasting man takes iftar (breaks his fast), and Isha when the twilight disappeared, and fajr when one who fasts is forbidden food and drink. The second time, we offerred Zuhr when the shadow of everything was like it in length at the time of Asr on the previous day. Then we offered the Asr when the shadow of everything was twice as long. We prayed Maghrib at the same time as the previous day; we prayed Isha when one-third of the night was over and Fajr when the earth was well-lit. Then Jibril turned to me and said; "O Muhammad! This was the time observed by Prophets before you, and the time (of five Salah) is between these two times." *

The scholars of Ahle Sunnah and the Muslim Astronomers (May Allah be pleased with them all) steadfastly studied for the calculations of Salah times for centuries. As a result of their valuable studies and researches, they worked out the most accurate Salah times which conformed with astronomy. The degrees of sun for calculating Salah times, which is obtained as an outcome of such studies, will be explained below.

Apart from this, if one attempted to calculate Salah times according to his own desires, that would be a great responsibility on him.

 

TIME OF ZUHR

The day which followed the Night of Mi’raj, Jibrail (Alayhis Salam) came down to teach about the times of Salah. He led Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) in Zuhr Salah, which is also called “Salatu Ulaa” (First Salah) as it was the first one to be led by the Angel.

In astronomy, the time of Zuhr is regarded as the starting point of all other Salah times. Firstly, time of Zuhr is calculated. The rest can only be done after Zuhr, based on its calculation.

The time of Zuhr starts when the sun moves away from its peak in midday, which is called Zawal, until Asr time. Asr has two times, one of which is called “Asr al Awwal” (First Asr) and the other “Asr Al Thani” (Second Asr). The details will follow in the next chapter.

TIME OF ASR

When the sun reaches its peak in midday, it stands on the meridian of that particular area. While at that moment, shadow of every object is at its shortest length. This moment is named as Zawal and such shadow as “Fay’ al Zawal” (Shadow during Zawal time).

When the shadow of an object, in Zawal time, is to be added on the shadow of the length of its own height, (shadow of the object + shadow of its own height) the first time of Asr (Asr Al Awwal) sets in. This is the view of Imamayn. (Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad)

When the shadow of an object, in Zawal time, is to be added on the shadow of double the length of its own height, the second time of Asr (Asr Al Thani) sets in. This is the view of Imam Azam Abu Hanifa (Rahmatullahi Alayhi).

If a person fails to perform his Zuhr Salah until ten minutes prior to the time of first Asr time, he can still perform it until ten minutes prior to the second Asr time. In this case, he performs Asr Salah once the time of second Asr has set in.

In this calendar, first Asr time (Asr Al Awwal) is used, which had been “Muftaa Bihi” (1) and “Ma’mulun bihi” (2) practises for centuries, during the reign of the Great Ottoman State.

*TIME OF **MAGHRIB *

According to the four imams, (Imam Azam Abu Hanifa, Imam Shafi’i, Imam Malik and Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal [Rahimahumulllah]) when the sun sets and the centre of the sun moves 1 degree below the horizon, time of Maghrib Salah begins.

Since there is a conflict of opinion about the final part of Maghrib time, the performance of Maghrib Salah must be completed at least 15-20 minutes prior to the time of Isha as a precaution. During seasons when Isha time sets in earlier, performance of  Maghrib Salah should be completed 15-20 minutes prior to Isha time.

However, in the cases where Isha time is very close, Maghrib Salah should still be performed and not be left as Qadhaa.

*TIME OF **ISHA *

Once the sun has set, it continues to descend below the horizon. At that moment, the horizon bares a reddish colour and a whiteness follows this for a short while. Before sunrise and after sunset, the sunrays are dispersed in the atmosphere. Hence, the reddish and whitish colours are observed because the sunrays are reflected in the air. In Astronomy, this phenomenon is called dawn.

    1.    The view on which fatwaa (verdict) is given.
   2.    The view on which people act upon.

 

With the use of modern devices today, it is proved that this event occurs once the sun has descended -17 degrees below the horizon. From this onwards, sunrays can no longer penetrate through the atmosphere. Thus, night begins.

According to Muslim scholars and astronomers, once the sun descends -17 degrees below the horizon, redness in the air disappears and time of Isha sets in.

 

*TIME OF **IMSAQ AND FAJR *

At midnight, when the sun has descended to the lowest point in the horizon, it then starts to rise. When it rises to -19 degrees, dawn takes place, this time, in the eastern horizon and the whiteness preceding redness can be observed. Then, Fajr al Sadiq (real dawn) begins and night ends. This time is also called Imsaq. Time of Fajr ends once the sun rises or in other words, when it moves to 1 degree in the horizon.

Fajr Salah can only be performed at least 20 minutes have passed after the time of Imsaq, which is separately shown on the calendar.

According to the views of Hanafi Madhhab, it is recommended (Mustahab) to begin the performance of Fajr Salah 45 minutes prior to sunrise while in Shafii’ first moments of the time. However, the followers of Hanafi Madhhab may also pray Fajr in the first moments of the time during the month of Ramadan or while in necessity.

The period between sunrise and Zuhr is the same as the one between Zuhr and the sunset.

We appeal to the forgiveness of Allah (Ta`ala) and the tolerance of our readers for any possible errors that might have occured regarding Salah times in this calendar after all the lengthy and scholarly researches we have conducted.

Success is from Allah (Ta`ala)

 

 

Fazilet Calendar

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