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AL-SAWM (FASTING)

The third pillar of Islâm is Al-Sawm (fasting). Fasting is to give up eating, drinking and intimacy from dawn to sunset with the intention of Ibâdah (worshiping). Resource used in this article is https://fazilet.com.tr/ilmihal/?lang=en An Illustrated Concise Manual of Basic Islâmic Teachings in Hanafi Madhhab


THE FARDH (OBLIGATORY) ACTS of FASTING


1. To make the Niyyah (intention),

2. To know the beginning and ending time of making

Niyyah (intention),

3. To abstain from the acts that break the fast from

dawn until sunset.

The beginning time of the fast is called “Imsâq” and the

ending time "Iftar”.


TYPES of FASTING


Fasting is of six types:

1. Fardh (obligatory),

2. Wâjib (required),

3. Sunnah (prophetic custom),

4. Mandûb (recommended),

5. Nâfilah (voluntary),

6. Makrûh (disliked).


Fardh Fasting: The fast kept in Ramadhân or made up later if missed in Ramadhân for a valid reason or to make Kaffarah (amends) for it when it is rendered void on purpose.


Wâjib Fasting: Making Qadhâ (making up) of a nafilah fast, which is nullified during its performance. And fasting when one has vowed to fast for any reasons.


Sunnah Fasting: Fasting on the ninth and the tenth day of the month of Muharram (Âshûrâ’).


Mandûb Fasting: Fasting three days in every month. It is further recommended to fast these three days on the 13th, 14 th and 15 th days called “Ayyâm Al-Bîdh”.


Nâfilah Fasting: All the other fasts excluding the Makrûh (disliked) ones are Nafilah fasts.


Makrûh Fasting: Fasting on the 10th of Muharram (Âshûrâ’), without fasting the preceding or the following day. It is TahrÎmân Makrûh (strongly disliked) to fast on the first day of Shawwâl (Eid Al-Fitr), or the 10th, 11 th, 12 th and 13 th days of Dhul Hijjah (Eid Al-Adhhâ).


TWO ADDITIONAL CLASSIFICATION of FASTING ACCORDING TO INTENTION


1. Fasts that need to be intended at night


Missed Ramadhân fasts made up later, nullified Nafilah (voluntary) fasts made up for each missed day, kaffarah (expiatory) fasts, and the fasts which a person vows to keep without assigning a specific date. Intending for these fasts at night is essential.


2. Fasts that need not to be intended at night


Ramadhân fasts, the fasts which a person vows to keep assigning a specific date and Nafilah (voluntary) fasts performed on definite days. These fasts need not to be intended at night. While one can make intention for them at night, one can also intend for these kinds of fasts up until the time preceding Zuhr Salâh (midday). It is accepted as a Ramadhân fast even if one intends for a Nâfilah (Voluntary) or a Wâjib fast in Ramadhân.



ACTIONS THAT BREAK THE FAST AND REQUIRE FASTING AGAIN AS QADHÂ


1. If something is swallowed by mistake while keeping the fast in mind,

2. If water is swallowed while taking it in one’s mouth or nose for Wudhû (ablution),

3. Not to intend for fasting in Ramadhân and to continue eating normally,

4. If someone eats through forgetfulness and continues eating or drinking, even though their fast is not actually broken,

5. To swallow rain water or snowflakes unintentionally,

6. To have an injection,

7. To take medicine through one’s nostrils,

8. To put oil into one’s ears,

9. To have the Sahûr meal late, after dawn, thinking there is still time to have it,

10. To break fast before sunset thinking the time has come to break it,

11. To swallow vomit,

12. To swallow the saliva of someone other than one’s spouse or a beloved one,

13. To swallow one’s own saliva after it has come out of the mouth,

14. To insert a finger wet with water or oil into the private parts,

15. To swallow blood from bleeding gums in an amount equal to or exceeding the saliva,

16. To swallow the smoke of a burning incense,


ACTS THAT BREAK THE FAST AND REQUIRE FASTING AGAIN AS QADHÂ AND KAFFÂRAH (EXPIATION)


1. To eat and drink knowingly,

2. To have intimacy knowingly,

3. To smoke knowingly,

4. To break the fast after backbiting thinking that the fast has already been broken.

5. To swallow the saliva of one’s spouse or a beloved one.


One should atone for a fast broken for one of the above

reasons by fasting without skipping a day for sixty days

plus one additional day for each broken fast.


MAKRÛH (DISLIKED) ACTS FOR the ONE FASTING


1. To taste anything without necessity,

2. To chew anything without necessity,

3. To chew a gum already chewed and no longer has its taste,

4. To kiss,

5. To embrace the spouse,

6. To save the saliva in the mouth and swallow it,

7. To have a blood sample taken.


ACTIONS THAT DO NOT BREAK ONE’S FAST


1. To eat, drink and have intimacy as a result of forgetfulness,

2. To ejaculate by merely thinking or looking,

3. To have a wet dream,

4. To kiss without any ejaculation,

5. To do hijâmah (cupping),

6. To swallow phlegm (from the throat),

7. To swallow mucus descending from the nose,

8. Water entering the ears.

9. To swallow anything smaller than a chickpea that has remained between the teeth after dawn (Imsâq),

10. To vomit involuntarily even though it is a large amount,

11. To apply kohl for the eyes,

12. To backbite,

13. To use medicated eye drops.

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